The Pacific Institute for the Mathematical Sciences (PIMS) was founded in 1996. Founding director, Nassif Ghoussoub, united a consortium of five universities in Alberta and British Columbia (the University of Alberta, the University of Calgary, the University of British Columbia, Simon Fraser University and the University of Victoria). Later they were joined by the University of Washington (2005) in the United States and more recently by the Universities of Regina (2007), Saskatchewan (2008), Lethbridge (2012) and finally Manitoba (2015). Affiliate universities include Portland State University, the University of Northern British Columbia, and Athabasca University.