# UBC DG MP PDE Seminar: Chen-Chih Lai

## Topic

Thermal effects on the deformation of a gas bubble in an incompressible fluid

## Details

We study the thermal decay of bubble oscillations in an incompressible fluid with surface tension. Particularly, we focus on the isobaric approximation [Prosperetti, JFM, 1991], under which the gas pressure within the bubble is spatially uniform and follows the ideal gas law. This model exhibits a one-parameter family of spherical equilibria, parametrized by the bubble mass. We prove that this family forms an attracting centre manifold for small spherically symmetric perturbations, with solutions converging to the manifold at an exponential rate over time. Furthermore, we show that under either liquid viscosity or irrotational flow assumptions, any equilibrium gas bubble must be spherical by proving that the bubble boundary is a closed surface of constant mean curvature. Additionally, the manifold of spherically symmetric equilibria captures all regular spherically symmetric equilibrium.

We also explore the dynamics of the bubble-fluid system subject to a small-amplitude, time-periodic, spherically symmetric external sound field. For this periodically forced system, we establish the existence of a unique time-periodic solution that is nonlinearly and exponentially asymptotically stable against small spherically symmetric perturbations.

In the latter part of the talk, I will discuss some limitations of the isobaric model in a more general (nonspherically symmetric) irrotational setting. Specifically, I will address issues such as (1) the undamped oscillations of shape modes due to spatial uniformity of the gas pressure, and (2) the incompatibility between viscosity and irroataionality assumptions. Our results suggest that to accurately capture the effect of thermal damping on the dynamics of general deformations of a gas bubble, the model should be considered within a framework that includes either non-zero vorticity, corrections to the isobaric approximation, or both.

If time permits, I will present ongoing work on the existence of nonspherically symmetric equilibrium bubbles in a rotational framework.

This talk is based on joint work with Michael I. Weinstein ([Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 2023], [Nonlinear Anal. 2024], [arXiv:2408.03787], and work in progress).

**Scientific, Seminar**

**October 10, 2024**

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